How to Securely Encrypt a USB Flash Drive

If you carry sensitive information around on a USB drive, you should consider using encryption to secure the data in case of loss or theft. I’ve already talked about how to encrypt your hard drive using BitLocker for Windows or FileVault for Mac, both built-in operating system features.

For USB drives, there are a couple of ways you can go about using encryption on the drives: using BitLocker on Windows, buying a hardware encrypted USB drive from a third-party or using third-party encryption software.

In this article, I’m going to talk about all three methods and how you can implement them. Before we get into the details, it should be noted that no encryption solution is perfect and guaranteed. Unfortunately, all the solutions mentioned below have run into issues over the years.

Security holes and vulnerabilities have been found in BitLocker, third-party encryption software and a lot of hardware encrypted USB drives can be hacked. So is there any point to using encryption? Yes, definitely. Hacking and exploiting vulnerabilities is extremely hard and requires a lot of technical skill.

Secondly, security is always being improved and updates are made to software, firmware, etc to keep data secure. Whatever method you choose, make sure to always keep everything updated.

Method 1 – BitLocker on Windows

BitLocker will encrypt your USB drive and then require a password to be entered whenever it is connected to a PC. To get started using BitLocker, go ahead and connect your USB drive to your computer. Right-click on the drive and click on Turn on BitLocker.

turn on bitlocker

Next, you’ll have the option to pick how you want to unlock the drive. You can choose to use a password, use a smart card or use both. For most personal users, the password option will be the best choice.

protect usb drive

Next, you’ll need to choose how you want to save the recovery key in case the password is forgotten.

recovery key save

You can save it to your Microsoft Account, save to a file or print the recovery key. If you save it to your Microsoft Account, you’ll have a much easier time recovering your data later on since it’ll be stored on Microsoft servers. However, the downside is that if law enforcement ever wants your data, Microsoft will have to pony up your recovery key if served a warrant.

If you save it to a file, make sure that file is stored somewhere secure. If someone can easily find the recovery key, then they can access all of your data. You can save to a file or print the key and then store that in a bank lockbox or something very secure.

encrypt drive

Next, you need to choose how much of the drive you want to encrypt. If it’s brand new, just encrypt the used space and it’ll encrypt the new data when you add it. If there is already something on it, then just encrypt the whole drive.

encryption mode

Depending on which version of Windows you are using, you may not see this screen. On Windows 10, you’ll be asked to choose between the new encryption mode or the compatible mode. Windows 10 has better and stronger encryption, which will not be compatible with earlier versions of Windows. If you want more security, go with the new mode, but if you need to connect the drive to older versions of Windows, go with compatible mode.

After this, it will begin to encrypt the drive. The time will depend on how big your drive is and how much data needs to be encrypted.

encryption complete

Now if you go to another Windows 10 machine and plug in the drive, you’ll see a little message appear in the notification area. In earlier versions of Windows, just go to Explorer.

drive is protected

You’ll also see the drive icon has a lock on it when you view the drives in Explorer.

locked drive

Finally, when you double-click on the drive to access it, you will be prompted to enter the password. If you click More Options, you’ll also see the option for using the recovery key.

unlock usb drive

If you want to turn off BitLocker at a later point, just right-click on the drive and choose Manage BitLocker. Then click on Turn off BitLocker in the list of links.

turn off bitlocker

You can also change the password, backup the recovery key again, add smart card verification and turn auto-lock on or off. Overall, it’s a simple and secure way to encrypt a flash drive that doesn’t require any third-party tools.

Method 2 – VeraCrypt

There is a lot of third-party data encryption software out there that claim they are safe and secure, but no audit has been done to ensure this so-called quality. When it comes to encryption, you need to be sure the code is being audited by teams of security professionals.

The only program I would recommend at this time would be VeraCrypt, which is based on the previously popular TrueCrypt. You can still download TrueCrypt 7.1a, which is the only recommend version to download, but it’s no longer being worked on. The code has been audited and thankfully no major security vulnerabilities have been found.

However, it does have some issues and therefore shouldn’t really be used anymore. VeraCrypt basically took TrueCrypt and fixed most of the issues that were found in the audit. To get started, download VeraCrypt and then install it on your system.

When you run the program, you’ll get a window with a bunch of drive letters and a few buttons. We want to start off by creating a new volume, so click on the Create Volume button.


The volume creation wizard will popup and you’ll have a couple of options. You can choose to Create an encrypted file container or you can choose to Encrypt a non-system partition/drive. The first option will create a virtual encrypted disk stored in a single file. The second option will encrypt your entire USB flash drive. With the first option, you can have some data stored in the encrypted volume and the rest of the drive can contain unencrypted data.

Since I only store sensitive information on one USB drive, I always go with encrypting the entire drive option.

encrypt drive volume

On the next screen, you have to choose between creating a Standard VeraCrypt volume or a Hidden VeraCrypt volume. Make sure to click on the link to understand in detail the difference. Basically, if you want something super secure, go with the hidden volume because it creates a second encrypted volume inside the first encrypted volume. You should store the real sensitive data in the second encrypted volume and some fake data in the first encrypted volume.

standard hidden volume

In this way, if someone forces you to give up your password, they will only see the contents of the first volume, not the second one. There is no extra complexity when accessing the hidden volume, you just have to enter a different password when you mount the drive, so I would suggest going with the hidden volume for extra security.

If you choose the hidden volume option, make sure to pick Normal mode on the next screen so that VeraCrypt creates the normal volume and hidden volume for you. Next, you have to choose the location of the volume.

volume location

Click on the Select Device button and then look for your removable device. Note that you can choose a partition or the entire device. You might run into some issues here because trying to select Removable Disk 1 gave me an error message stating that encrypted volumes can only be created on devices that don’t contain partitions.

encrypt partition drive

Since my USB stick only had one partition, I ended up just choosing the /Device/Harddisk/Partition1 E: and it worked fine. If you chose to create a hidden volume, the next screen will set the options for the outer volume.

encryption type

Here you have to choose the encryption algorithm and the hash algorithm. If you have no idea what anything means, just leave it at the default and click Next. The next screen will set the size of the outer volume, which will be the same size as the partition. At this point, you have to enter an outer volume password.

outer volume password

Note that the passwords for the outer volume and hidden volume have to be very different, so think of some good, long and strong passwords. On the next screen, you have to choose whether you want to support large files or not. They recommend no, so only choose yes if you really need to store files larger than 4GB on the drive.

format outer volume

Next, you have to format the outer volume and I would recommend not changing any of the settings here. The FAT filesystem is better for VeraCrypt. Click the Format button and it will delete everything on the drive and then start the creation process for the outer volume.

This will take some time because this format actually writes random data over the entire drive as opposed to the quick format that normally occurs in Windows. Once complete, you’ll be asked to go ahead and copy data to the outer volume. This is supposed to be your fake sensitive data.

outer volume contents

After you copy the data over, you’ll now start the process for the hidden volume. Here you have to choose the type of encryption again, which I would leave alone unless you know what all that means. Click Next and you now have the ability to choose the size of the hidden volume. If you’re sure you’re not going to add anything else to the outer volume, you can just max the hidden volume out.

However, you can make the size of the hidden volume smaller too if you like. That will give you more room in the outer volume.

hidden volume size

Next, you have to give your hidden volume a password and then click Format on the next screen to create the hidden volume. Finally, you’ll get a message telling you how to access the hidden volume.

hidden volume access

Note that the only way to access the drive now is by using VeraCrypt. If you try to click on the drive letter in Windows, you’ll just get an error message saying the drive cannot be recognized and needs to be formatted. Don’t so that unless you want to lose all your encrypted data!

Instead, open VeraCrypt and first choose a drive letter from the list at the top. Then click on Select Device and choose the removable disk partition from the list.  Lastly, click the Mount button. Here you will be asked to enter the password. If you enter the outer volume password, that volume will be mounted to the new drive letter. If you enter the hidden volume password, then that volume will be loaded.

mount veracrypt volume

Pretty cool right!? Now you have a super secure software encrypted USB flash drive that will be impossible for anyone to access.

Method 3 – Hardware Encrypted USB Flash Drives

Your third option is to buy a hardware encrypted USB flash drive. Never buy a software encrypted flash drive because it is probably using some proprietary encryption algorithm created by the company and has a much higher chance of being hacked into.

Even though method 1 and 2 are great, they are still software encryption solutions, which are not as ideal as a hardware based solution. Hardware encryption allows for faster access to the data on the drive, prevents pre-boot attacks and stores the encryption keys on a chip, removing the need for externally stored recovery keys.

When you buy a hardware encrypted device, make sure it is using AES-256 bit or is FIPS-compliant. My main recommendation in terms of trustworthy companies is IronKey.

ironkey encrypted storage

They’ve been in the business for a very long time and have some really high security products for consumers all the way to enterprises. If you really need some secure flash drives and don’t want to do it yourself, then this is the best choice. It’s not cheap, but at least you can feel good that your data is stored securely.

You’ll see a whole bunch of cheap options on sites like Amazon, but if you read the reviews, you’ll always find people who were “shocked” when something happened and they were able to access the data without typing in their password or something similar.

Hopefully, this in-depth article gives you a good idea of how you can encrypt data on a flash drive and access it securely. If you have any questions, feel free to comment. Enjoy!

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iOS Not Syncing All Google Calendars to iPhone?

Syncing your default Google Calendar or any custom calendars to your iPhone is pretty easy these days in iOS. Once you add your Gmail account under Mail, it gives you the option to sync your calendar, contacts and notes.

However, if you have ever added any third-party calendars to Google, i.e. the ones that show up under Other calendars, you might have noticed that they do not automatically get synced down to the iPhone.

This problem frustrated me for a long time before I was able to figure it out. In this article, I’ll quickly show you how to enable normal calendar syncing with Google in iOS followed by how to sync any other calendars you might have.

Sync Google Calendar to iPhone

This is very straight-forward and easy to do. First, go into Settings and tap on Mail, Contacts and Calendars. If you haven’t already added your account, tap on Add Account.

add google iphone

Tap on Google and then you’ll be asked to enter your Gmail email address. Tap next and you’ll need to enter your password. Tap next and if everything connects fine, you’ll see the options to sync mail, contacts, calendars, etc.

sync calendar

If you only need the calendars to sync, just turn everything else off. Tap Save and you’re good to go. Note that the only calendars that will sync are the ones listed under My Calendars when you go to on your desktop.

which calendars sync

Now open the calendar app on your phone and you should see all the appointments from those calendars listed under My Calendars. Before I get into how to sync the other calendars, let me give you one more quick tip.

Go to Settings, tap Mail, Contacts and Calendars and then scroll all the way down to Default Calendar. Here you can choose your main Google calendar as the default one so that when you create new events on your iPhone, they will be created in the Google calendar rather than in the iCloud calendar.

default calendar

Syncing Other Calendars to iPhone

Now for the interesting part. You would think there would be some obvious link available for syncing the rest of those calendars to your iPhone, but there isn’t. I searched through all the calendar settings and couldn’t find what I needed.

Eventually, I landed one some Google page that mentioned this specific link:

For some ridiculous reason, a link to this page does not appear anywhere on any page while in Google Calendar.

calendar sync settings

However, this page is key to getting those other calendars to show up in the Apple calendar app. Go ahead and check off any other calendars you want under Shared Calendars and once your phone syncs, all the items from those extra calendars will appear!

Enable Calendar in App

Lastly, you need to make sure the calendars you are syncing are actually enabled in the iOS calendar app. They should be by default, but if they are unchecked, then you won’t see those events. Open the calendar app and tap on Calendars at the very bottom.

calendars iphone

Make sure that all the calendars that you want from your Google account are checked. You can also uncheck any calendars you don’t want here.

list of calendars

That’s about it! All your events should be showing up just fine in your calendar at this point. If you have any questions, feel free to comment. Enjoy!

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How to Make Blurry Pictures Clear

Unless you are a professional photographer, there are many times when a great picture is ruined because it’s blurry! Whether it’s because something was moving really fast or because of camera shaking, a blurry picture is pretty useless.

However, there are many times when you simply cannot recreate the moment caught in that blurry picture and making it clearer or sharpening the image is worth a shot. Luckily, there are a ton of tools that can be used to fix this problem.

Picture enhancement software programs like Adobe Photoshop have excellent tools to help make blurry pictures sharp, but aren’t free. In this post, I am going to talk about a couple of methods in Photoshop that can help you unblur a photograph. If the picture is really important to you, then Photoshop will give you the best results.

In addition, I’ll also mention a couple of other programs you can use in case you don’t have Adobe Photoshop installed on your machine. Skip down to past method 1 and 2 if you are interested in the other programs. The other programs I mention are also not free because I found that all free photo editing programs basically have a single sharpen option, which almost always perform terribly.

The programs below are specifically designed with custom algorithms to create sharper images with the least amount of degradation.

Photoshop Method 1 – Using an Extra Layer

This method is fairly simple and works very well for sharpening images. For example, take a look at this photo with one side blurred and the other sharpened.

make blurry image clear

Take a look at the right side (sharpened) and the left side. Can you see the difference in the trees and in the person walking down? Here’s how to do it.

First, open the image in Photoshop and press CTRL + J to duplicate the background layer. Make sure to click on Layer 1 in the Layers panel.

second layer photoshop

Next, go to Filter, then Other, and choose High Pass. The higher the value you set it to, the sharper your image will become. However, if you set it really high, the image will become grainy. I set mine to 10 pixels.

filte other highpass

Don’t worry if your image looks like dark charcoal has been thrown all over it, we haven’t finished yet! With the new layer still selected, set the blending mode to Hard Light and adjust the Opacity to whatever you think makes the image look best. It’s set to 100% by default, but you may get better results at 50% or something else, so just play around with that value.

hard light photoshop

That’s it! Your image should now be much sharper looking! Unfortunately, if your image is very blurry or the blurriness is caused by really fast motion, you probably won’t see any major difference.

The best results are when the image is simply out of focus because the camera focused on the wrong object or something similar. Here is the before and after image that I tested using this method:

test1 orignal

test 1 result

Photoshop Method 2 – Shake Reduction Filter

The above method was the simple way to sharpen a photo in Photoshop. The advanced method is to use the new Shake Reduction Filter. To start using this filter, go ahead and click on Filter, then Sharpen and then Shake Reduction.

filter sharpen shake reduction

A window will pop up with the image on the left with a few options on the right. Photoshop will automatically try to figure out which part of the image to look at in order to correct the blur. You’ll see this section on the image as dotted lines.

shake reduction filter

This is called a blur trace and there is only one by default. The blur trace should ideally be part of the image that has the most edge contrast. So if one part of the image is bright and another part is dark, the blur trace should include the edge. In the above example, the default box is around her face, which is OK, but not ideal.

You can adjust the box by dragging the corners and changing the size. You can also click on the circle in the middle to move it around. If your image is really large, you can also create multiple blur traces in the case the blurring effect is different in different parts of the image. To create another blur trace, just click and drag to start drawing another box. I created two blur traces to see if the results would be better.

blur traces photoshop

In my tests, I found that sometimes the default options resulted in better results than when I changed the blur traces. In other instances, I felt adjusting the blur traces made the images better, so you’ll have to really play around with all the options to get the best results.

test 2 result

Here is the final image from method 2, which I think looks a little better than the results from method 1. It’s obviously far from ideal, but blurry images can rarely be turned into crystal clear shots again.


Blurity is a Windows or Mac program that is designed only for de-blurring photos. In my tests, it did an excellent job and I can see why they charge $79! It’s definitely only worth spending that much if the image really means a lot to you or if you have a lot of blurry photos you want to fix.

I also ran the program through VirusTotal and it came out clean, so you don’t have to worry about any spyware, etc. The only annoying thing about this program is that after you install it, it forces you to go through this tutorial that you MUST complete before you can actually start using the program.

Anyway, once you get past that, just click the Open Image button and then click anywhere on the image where there is a good instance of blur on a subject.

blurity gui

Once you select the region, just click on the Process button and it will generate a preview of the fixed blurred image. Here is the result on my test image with the watermark still on the image.

blurity results

Discounting the watermark, the program actually does a very good job of correcting the blur in the image and it better since it costs a quite a bit. For good results and a slightly cheaper price, check out the program below.


Another good program designed only for blurry photos is SmartDeblur. This one will set you back $49, but again, it does a very good job. Once you download and install the program, you have to click the Open button at the bottom to choose your image.


You can then adjust a couple of settings like Blur Size or the type of blue (Out of Focus blur or Gaussian blur), but I recommend just going with the defaults first to see what the program does. You can also select a region if you like or you can just click Analyze Blur and it will analyze the entire image.

You might have to increase the smoothness option afterwards because I found the default settings make the image pretty grainy. Here is my result for the same test image using 100×100 for blur size and analyzing the whole image:

smartdeblur results

So there you have a couple of methods to correct blurry images using software. As I mentioned, all the free tools I tried performed terribly and that’s why I didn’t even bother mentioning them. If you have any questions or suggestions, feel free to comment. Enjoy!

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How to Use Firefox Addons

Even though Firefox usage has been on the decline over the last few years, it’s still in second place behind Google Chrome in terms of usage. The main reason behind that is add-ons. Firefox can be customized in a million different ways, something no other browser can replicate to that level.

In Firefox lingo, add-ons can consist of a number of things: extensions, themes, plugins, services, search providers, language packs, etc. Add-ons allow you to change how Firefox works, extend its functionality or customize the appearance of the browser.

In the latest version of Firefox, add-ons are updated automatically, though this can be changed in the settings. Also, add-ons that you install from the Add-ons page in the Firefox browser have all been approved by Mozilla and should be safe to use. You can also download add-ons from third-party sites and install them manually, but these add-ons are not checked by Mozilla.

firefox main

Finding Add-ons

Let’s start by finding some add-ons to install in Firefox. There are two ways you can go about doing this: either through the web browser itself or via the Firefox Add-ons gallery website. For the former method, click on the settings icon at the far right (three horizontal lines) and then click on Add-ons.

settings add-ons

This will open another tab where you can find and manage add-ons, extensions, themes, plugins, etc. If you already know what you are looking for, you can simply search for the add-on in the box at the top.

get add-ons

To install an add-on, just click the Install button. Some add-ons will require a restart of the browser and some will not. For some reason, only the website gallery shows you which add-ons don’t require a restart.

install add-on firefox

The second way to find add-ons is to visit the Mozilla add-ons website. I like this interface better because you can search by categories, most popular, top rated, most users, newest, etc.

add-ons website firefox

It’s also much easier to find themes and collections on the website version. Collections is a really cool section that is created by users who group together several Firefox add-ons that relate to a specific idea or concept.

For example, you can install the Reference Desk collection, which will install ScrapBook, Merriam-Webster and Memonic Web Clipper together. If you’re a web developer, the Web Developer’s Toolbox has 12 add-ons that are perfect for troubleshooting, editing and debugging web projects.

Now that you have installed some add-ons and themes, let’s talk about how we can manage them.

Managing Add-ons

The first thing you might notice after installing an add-on is a new icon in your Firefox toolbar. Here I have an AdBlock Plus icon and a NoScript icon that were added automatically.

no script addon

Having the buttons in the toolbar allow me to control the settings for each webpage I visit, so it makes sense to have them there. Other add-ons will not necessarily add a button to your toolbar. You can customize what shows up in your toolbar by clicking on the settings icon and then clicking on Customize at the very bottom.

customize firefox

This will open a new tab that will allow you to customize Firefox. On the left is a section called Additional Tools and Features, which is basically all the options currently available for you to add to the toolbar or to the settings menu at the right.

Simply drag and drop items as desired. If there are other buttons available for the add-ons you have installed, those extra buttons will show up in the left-hand section.

Now let’s go back to the add-ons page that we began with at the beginning of the article. You’ll now see that by default, the page opens up to the Extensions tab rather than Get Add-ons.

extensions firefox

On the right side, you’ll see all the currently installed plugins. At the very top, you’ll see a gear icon, which will allow you to manually check for add-on update, install an add-on from a file or turn off automatic updates of add-ons. If you want to manually update your add-ons, simply uncheck the appropriate box.

As for the add-ons themselves, you have a couple of options. You can remove the plugin, which will uninstall it completely. You can also disable a plugin, which will turn off the functionality, but keep it installed in Firefox.

Lastly, the Options button is specific to each add-on and allows you to configure settings included by the developer. For example, the options for Search By Image from Google add-on let you choose whether or not to show the camera icon when hovering over an image.

firefox options

That’s about all you can do with add-ons. If you click on Appearance, you can change the Firefox theme to any other theme that you installed.

firefox themes

Click on the Enable button to activate a new theme for Firefox and the theme should be applied without having to restart the browser. Lastly, click on Plugins to manage any installed plugins. By default, Firefox has the OpenH264 Video Codec and Primetime Content Decryption plugins installed so you can watch YouTube, Netflix and other online video without problems!

firefox plugins

Overall, using add-ons in Firefox is really easy and can add quite a bit of power and customization to the browser. If you already use Firefox, make sure to check out my post on making Firefox fast again and tweaking settings in about:config. If you have any questions, feel free to comment. Enjoy!

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How to Fix an IP Address Conflict

Ever get an IP address error message when turning on your computer or taking it out of sleep mode? This occurs when two computers on the same LAN network end up with the same IP address. When this occurs, both computers end up not being able to connect to network resources or perform other network operations.

Here is the most common error message that will popup when you have an IP address issue:

There is an IP address conflict with another system on the network

You may also see a different error message for the same problem:

This IP address is already in use on the network. Please reconfigure a different IP address.

This problem, though rare, can occur because of the following reasons:

  • Two computers are assigned the same static IP addresses
  • One computer is assigned a static IP address that falls into the DHCP range for the local network and the same address is assigned to a computer by the DHCP server
  • A laptop is put into sleep mode and then turned on while connected to another network that has already assigned the same IP address to another computer
  • If you have multiple network adapters, it is possible for the computer to have an IP address conflict with itself
  • If you have connected multiple wireless routers to your network and DHCP is enabled on more than one device

ip address conflict

How to Resolve an IP Address Conflict

There are a few ways you can go about fixing this problem. I’ll start with the simplest and move on. Firstly, go ahead and restart your computer. Yes, that usually will fix the problem automatically! If not, then keep reading below.

Renew IP Address

You can release and renew the IP address for your computer using the command prompt. Click on Start and type in CMD.

open command prompt

At the prompt, go ahead and type in the following command, which will release your IP address:

ipconfig /release

Depending on how many adapters you have installed on your machine, you might see several results from the command above. For Ethernet ports, you’ll see the Ethernet adapter Ethernetx heading and for wireless cards you’ll see Wireless LAN Adapter Wi-Fi or something similar.

release ip address

Note that if your computer is setup with a static IP address, you will get a The operation failed as no adapter is in the state permissible for this operation error message. In this case, skip down to the Reconfigure Static IP Address section.

cannot renew ip address

After running this command, you need to run the command to renew your IP address, which it will try to get from the DHCP server.

ipconfig /renew

After a few seconds, you should see the results and there should be an IP address listed next to IPv4 Address.

renew ip address

Reconfigure Static IP Address

If your computer is using a static IP address, then you can also consider changing to a different static IP address. The current IP address may be conflicting with the set of IP addresses that the DHCP server is giving out.

Using the steps below, you can also get an IP address directly from the DHCP server rather than manually entering an IP address. In order to perform the release/renew commands above, you have to get an IP address from a DHCP server.

To do this, click on Control Panel, go to icons view and then click on Network and Sharing Center. On the left hand side, click on Change adapter settings.

change adapter settings

Right-click on the network adapter that is currently being used for your Internet connection and then select Properties.

ethernet adapter properties

Click on Internet Protocol Version 4 (TCP/IPv4) and then click on the Properties button.

tcpipv4 properties

Here you can pick from getting an IP address from a DHCP server (Obtain an IP address automatically) or entering a static IP address (Use the following IP address).

ip address properties

Unless you know what you are doing, you should always obtain an IP address automatically from a DHCP server. The DHCP already know which addresses are taken and which ones it can give out.

If the release/renew commands don’t fix your problem, the issue could be with your router.

Wireless Router

One solution that fixes a lot of problems is simply restarting your wireless router. If it’s been on for weeks or months, sometimes the software starts to suffer from glitches. A quick reboot should fix most issues. After restarting the router, it’s a good idea to restart your computer too.

In some rare instances, the actual DHCP server can malfunction and assign more than one computer the same IP address. In this case, it is best to try and update the firmware on your router. Most people don’t ever update their router firmware, so issues like this can crop up. It’s not the easiest thing to do in the world, but it’s probably worth it if you haven’t done it in a long time.

If you’re still having an IP address conflict, post your problem here and I’ll try to help you out! Enjoy!

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