Ubuntu: format SD card [Guide]

Are you new to Ubuntu? Do you need to format your SD card but can’t figure out how to do it? If so, this guide is for you! Follow along as we go over a few ways you can format SD cards on Linux.

Ubuntu: format SD card

Ubuntu: format SD card – Gparted

One way to format an SD card on Ubuntu is with the Gparted partition editor. It’s an excellent graphical tool that allows users to modify any storage device attached to Ubuntu, even SD cards.

To get started, you must install the Gparted partition editor on Ubuntu. To get the Gparted partition editor working on your Ubuntu PC, open up a terminal window on the Linux desktop by pressing Ctrl + Alt + T on the keyboard. Or, search for “Terminal” in the app menu.

Once the terminal window is open, use the apt install command to install the “gparted” package to your computer.

sudo apt install gparted

When the Gparted app is installed on your system, open up the app menu and search for “Gparted.” Then, follow the step-by-step instructions below to learn how to format your SD card.

Step 1: Connect your SD card to a USB reader and plug it into your PC. Or, if you have a built-in SD card reader, insert it into the reader slot.

Step 2: Once the SD card is inserted into your Ubuntu PC, go back to Gparted. Look for the “Gparted” menu at the top of the window and click on it to reveal its options.

Inside the Gparted menu, find the “Refresh Devices” option, and click it with the mouse. By clicking on “Refresh Devices,” Gparted will re-scan all storage devices connected to Ubuntu and pick up your SD card.

Step 3: Click on the storage menu in the right-hand corner of the Gparted app. Look for your SD card. Can’t find your SD card? To find it, remember the size of the SD card and match it with the correct one in the storage menu.

Step 4: After selecting your SD card in the storage menu, Gparted will display your SD card partition layout. From here, select all partitions with the mouse and press the Delete button.

Note: if you cannot delete partitions from your SD card, the partitions are mounted. To unmount a partition in Gparted, right-click on it and select the “Unmount” option.

By pressing Delete, you’ll see the partitions removed from the layout. However, they’re not gone from the SD card yet, as the “Apply” button must be selected to confirm the removal.

Step 5: Find the “Apply” button in Gparted and select it. By clicking on the “Apply” button, Gparted will remove all partitions you chose to delete in step 4.

Step 6: In Gparted, find the “unallocated” space, and right-click on it with the mouse. Then, select the “New” button to create a new partition.

Step 7: After clicking the “New” button to create a new partition on your SD card in Gparted, the “Create new Partition” window will appear. In this window, find “File system” and select the file system you prefer to use.

Don’t know what file system to use for your SD card? Select NTFS. NTFS is the Windows file system and works on both Ubuntu as well as Windows.

Click “Add” to add the partition.

Step 8: Once you’ve added your new partition to the SD Card in Gparted, click on the “Apply” button a second time to write the changes to the disk.

When Gparted finishes, close the app and eject your SD card. 

Ubuntu: format SD card – Gnome Disk Utility

Another way to format an SD card on Ubuntu is with the Gnome Disk Utility. It’s a very straightforward app, and it can handle most hard drives, USB flash drives, and even SD cards.

To get started, you must install Gnome Disk Utility. Open up a terminal on the Ubuntu desktop by pressing Ctrl + Alt + T on the keyboard. Once the terminal window is open, use the apt install command below to install the app.

sudo apt install gnome-disk-utility

After installing Gnome Disk Utility, open up the app by searching for “Disks” in your app menu. When the app is open, follow the step-by-step instructions below to format your SD card.

Step 1: Plug your SD card into a USB reader and into your computer. Or, insert your SD card into the SD card reader slot.

Step 2: Navigate to the left-hand sidebar and click on your SD card with the mouse.

Step 3: After clicking on the SD card with the mouse, Gnome Disk Utility will display the SD card. From here, find the Gnome Disk Utility menu and click on it with the mouse.

Can’t find the menu? It’s to the left of the minimize button.

Step 4: Inside the Gnome Disk Utility menu, select the “Format Disk” option. From there, you’ll be able to format your SD card to a new file system.

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How to remove a remove apt repository from Debian

Do you have an Apt repository on your Debian Linux PC that you want to delete? Can’t figure out how to do it? We can help! Follow along as we go over two ways you can remove Apt repositories from Debian!

Remove apt repository – Text editor

The easiest way to remove an Apt software repository from Debian Linux is through a text editor. Why? You can easily open up your Debian Apt sources list file in a text editor tool and turn things on and off without a lot of trouble. 

To get started, open up a terminal window. A terminal window is required for editing software sources on Debian, as they are system files. Users aren’t able to edit these system files without elevated privileges. 

Open up a terminal window on your Debian Linux desktop by pressing Ctrl + Alt + T on the keyboard. Or, search for “Terminal” in the app menu on your computer to launch the app. Once the terminal window is open, use the su – command to log into the root account.

Note: if you have sudo set up on your Debian Linux PC, you can execute sudo -s to gain root terminal access rather than using the su command.

su -

Once the terminal session has root access, we can open up the /etc/apt/sources.list file for editing purposes. In this guide, we’ll make use of the Nano text editor. Nano is highly user-friendly, pre-installed on most Debian Linux systems, and works right in the terminal.

nano /etc/apt/sources.list

Inside the Nano text editor, look for the software repository you wish to disable. In this example, we are disabling the VirtualBox third-party Apt repository. Once you’ve found the repo, place a # symbol in front of it.

By placing a # symbol in front of the repository, you are turning it off. Debian will ignore this repository, as any line with the # symbol is a code comment. 

Once you’ve added the # symbol in front of the repo, press the Ctrl + O key on the keyboard to save your changes. After that, exit Nano by pressing the Ctrl + X key.

When you’ve exited the Nano text editor, you can execute the apt update command to refresh Debian’s software sources. Debian will exclude the repo you turned off from the update, thus disabling it.

sudo apt update

Remove repo for good

If you want to remove an Apt repository from Debian for good, adding a # symbol in front to turn it off isn’t enough. To remove it altogether, do the following.

First, open up your /etc/apt/sources.list file in the Nano text editor with the command below.

su -

nano -w /etc/apt/sources.list

Inside the Nano text editor, locate the repo you wish to remove. Then, erase the repo line from the file by using the Backspace key. When the entire repo line is removed, press Ctrl + O to save the edits and Ctrl + X to exit Nano.

Once out of Nano, run the apt update command to refresh your Debian sources. By updating, Debian will exclude the now removed repo.

sudo apt update

Remove apt repository – Synaptic Package Manager

If removing Apt repositories via the terminal window isn’t your thing, you’ll be happy to know that it is possible to remove repos via the Synaptic package manager tool on Debian.

The Synaptic package manager tool comes pre-installed on most installations of Debian Linux. However, if you do not have this app installed, open up a terminal window and use the command below to get the app working on your system.

sudo apt install synaptic

To remove Apt repositories from your Debian Linux PC via Synaptic package manager, do the following. First, open the app and enter your user account password. 

Once the app is open on the desktop, look for the “Settings” button at the top of the page, and click on it with the mouse. Inside the “Settings” menu, there are several options to choose from. Select the “Repositories” button.

After clicking on the “Repositories” button with the mouse, the “Software & Updates” window will open on the Debian desktop. From here, click on the “Software & Updates” window with the mouse, and select “Other Software.”

In the “Other Software” tab, you’ll see software repositories available on your Debian Linux system. Look through the list for the one you wish to remove from your system.

Once you’ve found the Apt repository you wish to remove from Debian, select it with the mouse. Then, find the “Remove” button in the “Other Software” window and click on it to delete the repo from Debian for good.

When you’ve deleted your software repo, click the “Close” button. After selecting the “Close” button with the mouse, the Software & Updates app will ask you to reload your software sources. Allow it to do so to complete the removal of the Apt repository from your system.

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How to install the Foxit reader on Linux

The Foxit Reader is free PDF software for Linux, Mac, and Windows. It is open-source software. With it, users can create as well as annotate and collaborate with PDF files. Here’s how to install it on Linux.

Foxit reader on Linux

Ubuntu installation instructions

To get the Foxit Reader working on Ubuntu, you will need to download the installer program from the developer’s website. The Foxit Reader installer works on all distributions, including Ubuntu.

To download the latest Foxit Reader to your Ubuntu PC, start by opening up a terminal window. You can open up a terminal window on the Ubuntu desktop by using the Ctrl + Alt + T command.

Once the terminal window is open, make use of the wget terminal downloader tool. It comes pre-installed on Ubuntu and will make downloading the latest Foxit much faster, as you won’t have to deal with the website.

wget http://cdn09.foxitsoftware.com/pub/foxit/reader/desktop/linux/2.x/2.4/en_us/FoxitReader.enu.setup.2.4.4.0911.x64.run.tar.gz

After downloading the latest Foxit Reader Linux installer to your Ubuntu PC, you will need to extract it, as the installer is distributed via Tar GZ. Using the tar xvf command, decompress the Foxit Reader archive.

tar xvf FoxitReader.enu.setup.2.4.4.0911.x64.run.tar.gz

With everything extracted, it is time to start up the GUI installer for the Foxit reader.

./'FoxitReader.enu.setup.2.4.4.0911(r057d814).x64.run'

Once the installer is open on your Ubuntu PC, use the UI installer to get the Foxit Reader set up on your system. The installer will walk you through the process, similar to Windows app installers. 

Debian installation instructions

If you’re using Debian Linux and need to get the Foxit Reader working on your system, there’s only one way to go about it: you will have to download the Foxit Reader installer from the website.

On Debian Linux, installing Foxit Reader is slightly different, as the platform is one of the few mainstream Linux operating systems that still support 32-bit architecture. For this reason, we will cover how to install either the 32-bit or 64-bit versions of the Foxit Reader.

To start the installation, you must download the installer. To download the installer, open up a terminal window on the Debian Linux desktop. To open up the terminal on Debian, press Ctrl + Alt + T on the keyboard.

Once the terminal window is open, use the built-in wget downloader tool to grab either the 32-bit or 64-bit release of Foxit Reader for your Debian Linux system.

32-bit download

wget https://cdn01.foxitsoftware.com/pub/foxit/reader/desktop/linux/2.x/2.4/en_us/FoxitReader.enu.setup.2.4.4.0910.x86.run.tar.gz

64-bit download

wget http://cdn09.foxitsoftware.com/pub/foxit/reader/desktop/linux/2.x/2.4/en_us/FoxitReader.enu.setup.2.4.4.0911.x64.run.tar.gz

When the Foxit Reader installer has finished downloading to your Debian Linux PC, you must extract it. It needs to be extracted because the Linux Foxit Reader installer is distributed via a Tar GZ archive. 

To extract the Foxit Tar GZ archive, make use of the tar xvf command below.

32-bit extract

tar xvf FoxitReader.enu.setup.2.4.4.0910.x86.run.tar.gz

64-bit extract

tar xvf FoxitReader.enu.setup.2.4.4.0911.x64.run.tar.gz

Once everything is extracted, it is time to start up the GUI Foxit reader installer. To do this, execute the command below in the terminal.

32-bit run

./'FoxitReader.enu.setup.2.4.4.0910(r057d814).x86.run'

64-bit run

./'FoxitReader.enu.setup.2.4.4.0911(r057d814).x64.run'

When the Foxit reader installer pops up on the screen, the installation can begin. Follow along with the GUI to get the app working on your Debian Linux system. 

Arch Linux installation instructions

The Foxit Reader is supposed to be installed on Linux by manually downloading the GUI installer from the developers’ website. However, on Arch Linux, it’s much easier. Why? Users have created a Foxit Reader AUR package.

To get started with the Foxit Reader AUR package, you must first install the Trizen AUR helper application. To install the Trizen AUR helper, enter the commands below. 

Note: If you are a Manjaro Linux user, these instructions will also work for your system.

sudo pacman -S git base-devel

git clone https://aur.archlinux.org/trizen.git

cd trizen

makepkg -sri

After installing the Trizen AUR helper application on your Arch Linux PC, use it to install the latest Foxit Reader with the trizen -S command below.

trizen -S foxitreader

Fedora/OpenSUSE installation instructions

Foxit Reader is compatible with Fedora and OpenSUSE, as the app installs on the system via a generic file rather than packages specific to distributions. If you’re on Fedora or OpenSUSE, here’s how to get the app working.

First, open up a terminal window on the desktop by pressing Ctrl + Alt + T keyboard. Once the terminal window is open, it is time to download the latest Foxit Reader installation package to your computer.

Using the wget command, download the latest Foxit Reader package. This download should be quick, as the file is only a couple of megabytes in size.

wget http://cdn09.foxitsoftware.com/pub/foxit/reader/desktop/linux/2.x/2.4/en_us/FoxitReader.enu.setup.2.4.4.0911.x64.run.tar.gz

After the download completes, extract the Foxit Reader Tar GZ file on your Linux PC. To do that, make use of the following tar xvf command in a terminal window. 

tar xvf FoxitReader.enu.setup.2.4.4.0911.x64.run.tar.gz

When everything is extracted, you must start up the Foxit Reader installation GUI. To do that, execute the following command in a terminal window.

./'FoxitReader.enu.setup.2.4.4.0911(r057d814).x64.run'

With the Foxit Reader GUI open, use it to install the program on your Fedora or OpenSUSE Linux system. 

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Debian: uninstall package [Guide]

 From Apt-get to Synaptic Package Manager, there are many ways to uninstall packages in Debian Linux. In this guide, we’ll show you all the ways you can uninstall packages from your Debian Linux system.

Debian: uninstall package

Debian: uninstall package – Apt-get

The best way to uninstall a package on Debian Linux is with the Apt-get tool. Apt-get has been the standard Debian package manager for a very long time. It’s incredibly versatile and easy to use. Here’s how to use it to uninstall packages.

First, open up a terminal window. To open up a terminal window on the Debian desktop, press Ctrl + Alt + T on the keyboard. Alternatively, search for “Terminal” in the app menu to open it.

Once the terminal window is open and ready to use, execute the dpkg-query command. This command will display all installed packages on your Debian Linux system.

sudo dpkg-query -l | less

Look through the list of installed packages on your Debian Linux PC and find the name of the package you wish to remove. Once you’ve found the name of the package you want to remove from Debian, make use of the apt-get remove command below.

sudo apt-get remove package_to_remove

Alternatively, if you want to thoroughly purge the package and all of its configuration files from Debian, you can use the –purge function.

sudo apt-get remove package_to_remove --purge

Debian: uninstall package – Apt

Another way you can uninstall a package from Debian Linux is with the Apt command. Apt is a modern reformation of Apt-get. It has more advanced functionality, is faster, and has a built-in search feature, so you do not need to use dpkg-query

To uninstall a package on Debian, you must first use the apt search feature and use it to find the name of the package you wish to install. Using the apt search command below, search for your package.

apt search package_to_remove

After executing your search term, look through the list of search results for the package you wish to uninstall. Keep in mind that the search results may be very long. 

If you cannot find your installed package in the search results, try combining it with the grep command to filter out packages that are not installed on your computer. 

To filter out your search results, enter the following command into a terminal window. 

apt search package_to_remove | grep "installed"

Once you’ve determined the name of the package you wish to remove from your Debian Linux system, make use of the following apt remove command to uninstall the package from your Debian Linux system.

sudo apt remove package_to_remove

Want to thoroughly purge the package from your Debian system, along with all of its configuration files? Use the –purge command-line switch.

sudo apt remove package_to_remove --purge

Debian: uninstall package – Synaptic

If you use Debian and need to uninstall a package but don’t like using the terminal, Synaptic Package Manager is the way to go. To get started, open up the app menu and launch Synaptic. 

Synaptic comes pre-installed on many Debian Linux installations. If you do not have Synaptic installed on your system, open up a terminal window and install it with the apt install command below.

sudo apt install synaptic

Once the Synaptic Package Manager application is open and ready to use, follow the step-by-step instructions below to learn how to uninstall packages on Debian with it.

Step 1: Inside Synaptic Package Manager, find the “Status” button in the bottom-left corner and click on it with the mouse. The “Status” area allows users to sort packages based on “Installed,” “Not Installed,” etc.

Step 2: After clicking on the “Status” button, you will see various choices. Choose “Installed” to filter out all Debian Linux packages that are not installed on your system.

Step 3: Once you’ve selected the “Installed” status filter in Synaptic, look through the installed packages for the package you wish to remove.

If you cannot find the package, locate the “Search” button in the app’s upper-right corner and click on it with the mouse. Then, in the search box, type in the name of the package you wish to remove and press the Enter key to search.

Step 4: When you’ve located the package you wish to uninstall from Debian, right-click on it with the mouse. Inside the right-click menu, find the “Mark For Removal” option and select it.

Step 5: After clicking on the “Mark For Removal” button, find “Apply” and click on it. When you click “Apply,” the Synaptic Package Manager will attempt to remove your package.

When the package removal process is complete, close the Synaptic Package Manager.

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Ubuntu: update kernel [Guide]

If you’ve used Ubuntu long enough, you’ll notice that the Linux kernel doesn’t often get updated to a new release. Usually, the Ubuntu developers push out point releases until the next new Ubuntu release.

This guide will go over how you can update the Ubuntu kernel manually by downloading developer kernel packages. We’ll also cover a useful app known as Mainline to give you new kernel upgrades on Ubuntu.

Ubuntu: update kernel – Downloading kernel packages manually

A foolproof way of getting the latest Linux kernel on Ubuntu is by manually downloading all of the packages directly from the Ubuntu mainline kernel website. The Ubuntu mainline kernel website regularly publishes new releases of the Linux kernel, built for Ubuntu.

These packages aren’t bug-proof, and often you’ll find Linux kernel modules refusing to install at times. However, if you want to update the Linux kernel on Ubuntu, this is a great way to go.

To update your Ubuntu kernel using the mainline packages, follow the step-by-step instructions below.

Step 1: Open up a terminal window on the Ubuntu desktop. A terminal window is required to deal with kernel packages. You will not be able to update your Ubuntu kernel with the Ubuntu software center.

To open up a terminal window on the Ubuntu desktop, press Ctrl + Alt + T on the keyboard. Alternatively, search for “Terminal” in the app menu and launch it that way.

Step 2: Once the terminal window is open on your Ubuntu PC, install the Lynx command-line web browser. This web browser will come in handy later on in the instructions.

To install the Lynx web browser on your Ubuntu Linux PC, make use of the following apt install command and install the “lynx” package.

sudo apt install lynx

Step 3: After installing the Lynx package, head over to the Ubuntu mainline kernel website. Once on the website, find a kernel version to install. The link we’ve provided sorts the versions from newest to oldest.

For example, to access the Linux kernel 5.11, you’d select the v5.11 folder, etc.

Step 4: After you’ve accessed the kernel version folder, scroll down the page till you find the “amd64” folder. If you can’t find it, it is in the file list below the package links.

Step 5: When you’ve opened up the “amd64” folder on the mainline kernel website, the URL box in your web browser should look similar to the example below.

https://kernel.ubuntu.com/~kernel-ppa/mainline/v5.11/amd64/

Take the URL and put it in the command below, replacing MY_KERNEL_URL_HERE.

lynx --dump MY_KERNEL_URL_HERE | awk '/http/{print $2}' | grep deb | grep -v "lowlatency" > ~/kernel-packages.txt

Step 6: After replacing the MY_KERNEL_URL_HERE in the command, it should look like the example below. In this example, we are using kernel 5.11.

lynx --dump https://kernel.ubuntu.com/~kernel-ppa/mainline/v5.11/amd64/ | awk '/http/{print $2}' | grep deb | grep -v "lowlatency" > ~/kernel-packages.txt

Write out the above command into the terminal and press the Enter key to execute it. Once the Enter key is pressed, the Lynx web browser will generate a list of links for all Ubuntu kernel packages stored in kernel-packages.txt in your home (~) directory.

Step 7: Lynx has generated a list of links for the Ubuntu kernel version you wish to install. It’s now time to download the packages. Using the wget command, grab all of the kernel packages listed in the kernel-packages.txt file.

wget -i ~/kernel-packages.txt

Step 8: Once all packages are done downloading to your Ubuntu PC, you can install them, thus updating the Ubuntu kernel to a newer version than what is provided in the Ubuntu repos.

sudo dpkg -i linux-*.deb

Step 9: Reboot your Ubuntu PC. When your Ubuntu PC finishes rebooting, you’ll have access to the new kernel you’ve installed! Enjoy your updated Ubuntu kernel!

Ubuntu: update kernel – Mainline

If downloading the Linux kernel packages via the Ubuntu developer website isn’t your thing, you’ll want to check out Mainline. It can update Ubuntu’s kernel to a new version with a slick user interface.

To get started, you’ll need to install the Mainline application. To install it, open up a terminal window and use the add-apt-repository command below to get the program working. 

sudo add-apt-repository ppa:cappelikan/ppa

After adding the PPA, you will need to execute the update command. This command will refresh Ubuntu’s software sources and make the new PPA accessible.

sudo apt update

Following the update, install the Mainline app using the apt install command below.

sudo apt install mainline

Once Mainline is installed, search for “Mainline” in your app menu, and open it. When the app is open, look through the Ubuntu kernels list and select the one you wish to install with the mouse. Then, select the “Install” button to continue.

After clicking on the “Install” button, Mainline will download and install the new Ubuntu kernel version. When the process is complete, close the program and reboot your PC.

Upon logging back in, you’ll be using a newly updated Ubuntu kernel!

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