How To Set Double Line Spacing In Microsoft Word For Academic Work

Line spacing in Microsoft Word is set to 1. The 1 seems to be a very vague measure since it isn’t accompanied by any units. The default line spacing is a certain percentage of the font size. It’s dynamic i.e. the smaller the size of the font, the less space there will be between lines even if the line spacing is set to 1. If you increase the font size, the space between the lines will likewise increase. The default line spacing makes a document easy to read however, if you have to submit your document somewhere that specifies formatting standards, you might need to change line spacing. Academic work usually requires double line spacing. Here’s how you can set it for a paragraph, a single document, and as the default for all documents created in Microsoft Word.

Double Line Spacing In Microsoft Word

Line spacing can be set on a per-paragraph, and per-document basis. If you need to create lots of documents along specific formatting rules, you can change the default line spacing on Word.

Per-Paragraph Line Spacing

Open Word, and select a paragraph you want to double line spacing for. On the Home tab, go to the Paragraph set of tools click the button with lines and arrows pointing up and down next to it. It’s next to the fill tool. From the menu that opens, select the 2.0 option to get double line spacing for that paragraph.

Document Line Spacing

On the Home tab and click the line spacing button again. This time, select Line Spacing Options from the menu. This will open the Paragraph window. On the Indent and Spacing tab, go to the Spacing section and open the Line Spacing dropdown. Select Double from the listed options and click the Set as Default button at the bottom.

You will see a prompt asking if you want to apply the default to the current document, or to every Microsoft Word file. Select the apply to this document option. The line spacing for all text already entered, typed in later, or pasted will be doubled.

Double Line Spacing Default

To set double line spacing for any and all document you create in Microsoft Word, open any Word file and go to the Home tab. On the Paragraph toolbox, click the line spacing button and select Line Spacing Options from the menu. In the Paragraph window that opens, go to the Indent and Spacing tab. In the Spacing section, open the Line Spacing dropdown and select ‘Double’. Click Set as Default, and in the window that opens, select the ‘All documents based on the Normal.dotm template’ option.

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What is The WPA3 WiFi Security Standard?

Your router comes with a layer of security that keeps the network safe. To the average person, this security is the password they need to enter in order to connect to the network but it’s far more complicated than that if you look under the hood. The password is part of the security protocol that a router uses to keep your network and your connection safe and your router isn’t the only one that employs a security protocol.

Your devices, whether it’s your phone or your computer, also make use of a security protocol to protect your online activity as well as your devices from hackers. At present, all devices and routers use the WPA2 security protocol but that is going to change over the course of the next few years. The next WiFi security standard developed by the WiFi Alliance is ready for certification. Dubbed WPA3, this new security protocol is built to tackle the shortcomings of WPA2, and meet the security needs of growing IoT devices.

WPA3 WiFi Security Standard

The WPA3 WiFi security standard is the successor of WPA2. At present, it’s only in its certification stage and you can’t find a device that supports it just yet. Once it rolls out though, it will make WiFi, particularly public WiFi more secure. It will also plug security holes created by IoT devices on your network, make hacking your network much more difficult, and encrypt your data better.

Protection Against Brute Force Attacks

WPA3 offers protection against brute force attacks. At present, the WPA2 protocol allows hackers to basically bombard your network with attempt after attempt at guessing the password. In many cases, they succeed by sheer force and volume of tries but also by relying on intelligent guesswork, and poor password setting conventions followed by users. With WPA3, this method will no longer work because passwords are authenticated differently. Each password attempt forces the device to communicate with the network. The devices will authenticate differently compared to the way they did in WPA2 making a brute force attack much less effective.


WiFi Easy Connect

One of the chief things this new protocol targets is security for IoT. WPA2 never had to deal with devices that had no proper control panel for connecting to networks. At the time, not many people might have envisioned their fridge or thermostat connecting to the internet, or their WiFi network but that is how things are today. To make it easier to connect these devices to your network, WPA3 has WiFi easy connect whereby a reliable device already connected to your network such as your phone will scan a QR code on your router and the device you want to connect to. Your phone will act as an intermediary to connect the device to your network. Easy Connect is optional so while it’s a great new addition, users will need to consciously look for and buy devices that support it if they want to use it.

Data Encryption On Public WiFi

It’s no secret that public WiFi is never considered safe. Even for private WiFi networks, security experts recommend using a VPN to keep your data safe. With WPA3, you no longer have to worry about public WiFi being unsafe. If the router, and your device both support this protocol your data on the network will be encrypted.

Impact On Devices

Devices, both routers and network cards used in phones and computers, will need to be updated to this standard. In some cases, existing routers and devices will be able to switch to WPA3 with a firmware or driver update however, in most cases you’re looking at buying new hardware. This means buying a new phone, a new computer, and a new router. It might sound expensive but the new protocol will become common in the next few years and most people are likely to buy a new device. Older devices that can only support WPA2 will still be able to connect to a router that supports WPA3 so you’re not going to wake up one day with a device that cannot connect to the internet.

At present, there are no devices that comply with WPA3. Certifications for it have only been announced a few days ago and it will take a reasonable amount of time for device manufacturers to become certified. Only time will tell which existing devices can be updated, and which ones need an upgrade.

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How To Move Objects In Photoshop To A Specific Position

Photoshop allows you set the canvas size to anything you like. You can set the size in pixels, or in inches and you can change it while you’re working on a file. For every canvas that you create, every pixel on it is mapped to a position that is defined in x and y coordinates. These coordinates can be used to move objects in Photoshop to a specific position , and there are angles that allow you to rotate them.

Find x/y Coordinates

First, open Photoshop’s preferences from Edit>Preferences. Go to Units & rulers, and change the units from inches to pixels.

Next, assuming you know where you want to move an object to by just looking at the canvas, you need to find its address i.e., its x/y coordinates.

Go to Window>Info to show the info window. Position your mouse cursor over the area you want to find x/y coordinates for.

The Info window will tell you the exact coordinates for your cursor’s current position. If you move your mouse around, it will update in real time. Note down the coordinates.

Move Objects

Select the layer that the object is on and tap the Ctrl+T (Windows) or Command+T (Mac) keyboard shortcut to enter free transform mode. On the top bar, you will see input fields for x/y coordinates. Enter the ones you noted down in the previous section, and the object will be moved to that position.

Objects are position by their center i.e., the center that appears when the object is in free transform mode is the point that is positioned where you specify it in the x/y coordinates fields. The object is not positioned from its left-top edge.

What this means is that the entire layer’s center will be used. To make sure the object is moved accurately, you should make sure there isn’t so much as an extra pixel worth of a dot on a layer. Only the object you intend to use should be present on the layer.

It might help to also use guides and grids while you try to figure out where to move an object. Drag them out and create intersection points if you need to snap an object to a particular position and the x/y coordinates aren’t working for you. Use linked layers if you need to keep two or more layers at relative positions to each other, and lock them down once you’ve positioned them correctly. It is possible to position items off-canvas if you enter the wrong coordinates so if your object disappears you can hit undo, or just drag the mouse cursor to find its outline. Zoom out and it will be easier to find it.

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How To Block Graphics Driver Updates On Windows 10

Windows 10 updates often cause bugs but this is a problem that’s usually reserved for large, feature updates. That said, as part of its regular updates, Windows 10 downloads and installs driver updates as well. Often, the graphics driver will be updated and the new version may not work well. These are mostly generic drivers and if you know for a fact that the newer one isn’t going to work for you, you need to block graphics driver updates on Windows 10.

Block Graphics Driver Updates

We should warn you that driver updates, or updates of any kind, should only be blocked if they make your system unstable.

In order to block graphics driver updates, you can turn to third-party apps built for blocking updates on Windows 10 however, a better, safer option is to use this troubleshooting tool from Microsoft. It is built specifically for blocking updates.

The first thing you need to do is uninstall the problematic graphics driver. To uninstall the driver, open the Device Manager and expand Display Adapters. Right-click the graphics card that was updated and select Properties from the context menu. In the Properties window, go to the Driver tab, and select the roll back option.

Once you’ve done that, Windows 10 will try and install the driver again. This is when you run the troubleshooting tool.

Click the Next button on the start screen, and select the ‘Hide Updates’ option. The tool will search for and list all the available updates. Select the ones you want to hide, and click Next.

Hiding updates will prevent Windows 10 from downloading, and subsequently installing them. If you ever need to unhide the updates, run this same tool again, but click the Show hidden updates option. From the list of hidden updates, you can choose which updates to unhide.

Since this is your graphics driver that we’re talking about, it might be a good idea to check if your system has an app from your GPU manufacturer installed on it. Both Nvidia and AMD have dedicated apps that can download and install drivers. It’s possible that these apps are updating the driver and not Windows 10. If the troubleshooting utility fails to find any graphics drivers after you roll one back, check the permissions your GPU’s application has. If auto-updates are enabled, disable them.

Lastly, if your GPU has begun to cause problems after a major Windows 10 update, check forums and other online help portals, particularly any forums hosted by the manufacturer of your GPU for known bugs, and available solutions.

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