Linux: test disk speed [Guide]

Need to test your hard drive speed on Linux but can’t quite figure it out? We can help! Follow along with this guide as we go over how you can test your disk speed on Linux!

Linux: test disk speed

Gnome Disk Utility

If you want to test disk speed on Linux, the best way to go about it is with the Gnome Disk Utility. It’s a handy, easy-to-understand program that can benchmark and test hard drive speeds.

The Gnome Disk Utility application doesn’t come pre-installed on every Linux operating system, though, so before we go over how to use it to test your hard drive disk speed, you will need to install the program.

To start the installation of Gnome Disk Utility on your Linux PC, open up a terminal window. You can open up a terminal window by pressing Ctrl + Alt + T on the keyboard. Or, open up the app menu and search for “Terminal.”

Once the terminal window is open and ready to use, follow along with the installation instructions down below to get the Gnome Disk Utility application set up on your Linux PC.

Ubuntu

On Ubuntu, install the Gnome Disk Utility application by making use of the apt install command below.

sudo apt install gnome-disk-utility

Debian

Those using Debian Linux will be able to get the Gnome Disk Utility application set up by executing the apt-get install command.

sudo apt-get install gnome-disk-utility

Arch Linux

On Arch Linux, the Gnome Disk Utility application is installable via the Pacman command below.

sudo pacman -S gnome-disk-utility

Fedora

Those on Fedora Linux can get the Gnome Disk Utility program working via the dnf install command.

sudo dnf install gnome-disk-utility

OpenSUSE

On OpenSUSE Linux, the Gnome Disk Utility program is easily installed by making use of the zypper install command below.

sudo zypper install gnome-disk-utility

Now that the Gnome Disk Utility application is open launch the program by searching for “Disks” in your app menu. Then, follow the step-by-step instructions down below to test your disk speed on Linux.

Step 1: Inside the Gnome Disk Utility app, look to the left-hand sidebar and locate the disk whose speed you want to test. Then, click on it with the mouse to look at the overview of the app’s drive.

Step 2: Find the menu button in Gnome Disk Utility, and select it with the mouse to open it up. If you cannot find the menu, look to the left of the minimize button.

Inside the Gnome Disk Utility menu, locate the “Benchmark Disk” button and select it with the mouse. By choosing the “Benchmark Disk” button, you’ll open up the tester tool.

Step 3: Once the benchmark tool is open, locate the “Start Benchmark” button, and click on it to start up the benchmark. Keep in mind that this benchmark could take a bit of time to complete, so be patient. 

When the benchmark tool is complete, Gnome Disk Utility will create a full readout of your hard drive. To check the speed, find the “Average Read Rate” and “Average Write Rate.” This will tell you your hard drive speed.

HDParm

HDParm is another application that you can use to test your disk speed on Linux. It’s not as easy to use as Gnome Disk Utility, and there isn’t a GUI, but it is just as helpful. 

The HDParm application isn’t installed by default on every Linux operating system out there, but it is on quite a few. To check if HDParm is installed on your computer, run the hdparm –help command in a terminal window. 

If you do not have HDParm installed on your Linux PC, open up a terminal window on the Linux desktop by pressing Ctrl + Alt + T on the keyboard. Once the terminal window is open, follow the installation instructions below.

Ubuntu

You can install HDParm on Ubuntu with the apt command.

sudo apt install hdparm

Debian

To install HDParm on Debian, use apt-get.

sudo apt-get install hdparm

Arch Linux

On Arch Linux, install HDParm by using Pacman command.

sudo pacman -S hdparm

Fedora

On Fedora, install HDParm with dnf.

sudo dnf install hdparm

OpenSUSE

Install HDParm on OpenSUSE with zypper.

sudo zypper install hdparm

Once HDParm is installed on your computer, follow the step-by-step instructions below to test your disk speed.

Step 1: First, run the lsblk command to view all connected hard drives on the system. 

lsblk

Look through and find the hard drive you plan to test. In this example, we’ll test /dev/sda. For more information on finding hard drive info in lsblk, read this guide on the subject.

Step 2: Execute the hdparm -Tt command on the hard drive to begin the test.

sudo hdparm -Tt /dev/sda

When the test is complete, you’ll see the test results on the screen. 

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Ubuntu: check kernel version [Guide]

If you use Ubuntu, at some point you may be curious what your kernel version is. Unfortunately, in Ubuntu, the developers don’t tell you how to check the kernel info. In this guide, we’ll show you 4 ways you can check your kernel version on Ubuntu. 

Ubuntu: check kernel version

Method 1 – Uname 

The best and quickest way to check the kernel version on Ubuntu is with the uname command. This tool can tell you your exact kernel release version, and a lot of other valuable information as well.

To use the uname command, you must open up a terminal window on the Ubuntu desktop. To open up a terminal window on the desktop press Ctrl + Alt + T on the keyboard. Alternatively, search for “Terminal” in the app menu and open it that way. 

Once the terminal window is open, execute the uname -a command. This command will print out all system information, including your kernel version information.

uname -a

If you’d prefer to just get the kernel information, instead of the kernel information, plus OS release name, and other information, you can replace the uname -a command for the uname -srm command. This command will only show you Ubuntu’s kernel version.

uname -srm

Save output

Want to save the output of uname -srm to a text file for later? Here’s how to do it. Re-run the uname -srm command but with the symbol on the end, and point it to a new text file.

uname -srm > ~/kernel-info.txt

When the command is complete, you can take a look at the text file at any time for information on the Ubuntu kernel by making use of the cat command below.

Note: you can also open up the “kernel-info.txt” in your favorite text editor to view the information instead of cat.

cat ~/kernel-info.txt

Method 2 – Hostnamectl

Another way to find the Ubuntu kernel version is with the Hostnamectltool. It’s a systemd tool that allows users to find information about the system. It can be used to view your Ubuntu kernel version. Here’s how.

To view your kernel information, execute the hostnamectl status command. By executing this command, the Hostnamectl program will show you a complete readout of the hostname of your system, Operating System name, kernel info, etc.

hostnamectl status

Look through the Hostnamectl output for the “Kernel” section. Once you’ve found it, the information next to it is the Ubuntu kernel information.

Don’t want to look at other information in Hostnamectl aside from the kernel version info? Use the grep command to filter out your kernel info.

hostnamectl status | grep "Kernel:"

Save output

If you’d like to save the Hostnamectl output to a text file to read later, you can do it by redirecting the command to a text file. To save the entire Hostnamectl output to a text file, execute the command below.

hostnamectl status > ~/kernel-info.txt

Alternatively, if you’d like to save just the kernel section of the output, you can do so by entering the following command.

hostnamectl status | grep "Kernel:" > ~/kernel-info.txt

To view the kernel-info.txt file, execute the cat command below. Or, open up “kernel-info.txt” in your favorite GUI text editor.

cat ~/kernel-info.txt

Method 3 – /proc/version

The third way of viewing kernel information on Ubuntu is with the /proc/version file. This file has tons of info to look at. To take a look at it, you’ll need to use the cat command below.

cat /proc/version

In the cat output, locate “Linux version.” Next to the “Linux version” section of the text file is your Ubuntu kernel version. 

Save output

To save the output of /proc/version to a text file for later, redirect the cat /proc/version command to a text file in your home folder.

cat /proc/version > ~/kernel-info.txt

To read the text file, use the cat command on “kernel-info.txt”, or open up “kernel-info.txt” in your favorite GUI text editor.

Method 4 – Neofetch

The fourth way of viewing kernel information on Ubuntu Linux is with the Neofetch system information tool. It’s a powerful tool that scans your Ubuntu system for tons of information and prints it out in a nice output, next to your OS logo. 

To get started with Neofetch, you must install the program on your computer. To install it, open up a terminal window by pressing Ctrl + Alt + T on the keyboard. Then, enter the command below.

sudo apt install neofetch

Once the Neofetch application is installed on your Ubuntu PC, execute the neofetch command in a terminal. Keep in mind that the output may take a couple of seconds, as the program needs to collect the information.

neofetch

After executing the neofetch command, look through the output for the “Kernel” section. Next to “Kernel,” you’ll see your Ubuntu kernel version. 

Save output

If you’d like to save the Neofetch terminal output to a text file to read for later, generate the output but this time, redirect it to a text file rather than allowing it to print on the screen.

neofetch > ~/kernel-info.txt

You can view the Neofetch output in the “kernel-info.txt” text file at any time by executing the cat command below, or, by opening it up in your favorite text editor.

cat ~/kernel-info.txt

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How to install the Neo-to GTK theme on Linux

Neo-to is a fancy, neon-like GTK theme for the Linux desktop. It’s charming to look at and is sure to spruce up your bland Linux desktop! Here’s how to install it on your Linux computer!

Neo-to GTK theme on Linux

Downloading Neo-to 

The Neo-to GTK theme is available to all Linux users for download via the Gnome-look.org theme website. There are several different variations of the Neo-to GTK theme to download.

To download any of the theme versions, start by heading over to the Neo-to Gnome-look page. Once on the page, click on the “Files” tab to view the various theme packs available for download.

Inside the “Files” area, click on the blue download icon in the “DL” column to start the download. The download of the Neo-to theme will not take long. When it is complete, move on to the next section of the guide. 

Extracting Neo-to 

The Neo-to GTK theme is distributed to Linux users in the form of a TarXZ archive. This archive needs to be extracted before the theme can be installed, as Linux themes can’t be activated in an archive format.

To start the extraction, open up a terminal window on the Linux desktop. To open up a terminal window, press the Ctrl + Alt + T keyboard combination. Then, use the CD command to move into the “Downloads” directory where the theme file was downloaded.

cd ~/Downloads

Once inside the “Downloads” folder, the extraction can begin. Using the tar command, extract the No-to theme files to your computer.

If you’ve downloaded the “neo-to.tar.xz” theme pack, you can easily extract it with the following command.

tar xvf neo-to.tar.xz

Did you grab the “neo-to-white.tar.xz” theme to use on your Linux PC? Extract it with the following command. 

tar xvf neo-to-white.tar.xz

Want to install the “neo-to-lighter-headerbar.tar.xz” theme pack on your computer? If so, you’ll need to enter the command below.

tar xvf neo-to-lighter-headerbar.tar.xz

When your Neo-to theme packs are fully extracted, the installation can begin. Move on to the next section of the guide to get Neo-to set up on your Linux PC!

Installing Neo-to 

There are two ways to install the Neo-to GTK theme on Linux. The first way to install the theme is known as single-user, allowing only the person who installs the theme to have access to it. The second way of installing Neo-to is known as system-wide, which enables any Linux user to access the theme once installed.

To start the installation of Neo-to on Linux, open up a terminal window. Once the terminal window is open, follow along with the installation method down below that you prefer.

Single-user

To install Neo-to as a single-user, start by using the mkdir command to create a new theme folder in your home directory. This theme folder will enable your user account to access the Neo-to GTK theme.

mkdir -p ~/.themes

After creating a new ~/.themes folder, you’ll be able to install themes locally on your computer so that only your Linux user account can access them. Next, use the CD command to move into the “Downloads” directory. The “Downloads” directory is where the Neo-to theme package was extracted previously. 

cd ~/Downloads/

Inside of the “Downloads” directory, use the mv command to move the Neo-to theme files into your newly created ~/.themes directory. 

mv  neo-to*/ ~/.themes/

Once everything is moved, the Neo-to theme file is installed in single-user mode. Confirm that the installation is successful by running the ls command below.

ls ~/.themes

System-wide

To install Neo-to in system-wide mode, start by accessing the “Downloads” directory to which the theme pack was extracted previously. You can access this folder by making use of the CD command below.

cd ~/Downloads

Inside of the “Downloads” directory, use the sudo -s command to elevate your terminal session to “root” without leaving the directory you’re in.

sudo -s

Once the terminal session has root access, the installation of Neo-to in system-wide mode can begin. Using the mv command, install Neo-to to the /usr/share/themes/ directory.

mv neo-to*/ /usr/share/themes/

Once the installation is complete, Neo-to is set up on your Linux PC in system-wide mode. To verify that the installation was successful, run the ls command below.

ls /usr/share/themes/

Activating Neo-to 

The Neo-to GTK theme is installed on your Linux PC, but installing it doesn’t activate the theme. To start using the Neo-to GTK theme on your Linux PC as your default GTK theme, you will need to change your default GTK theme to “Neo-to.”

Unsure about how to change the default GTK theme on your Linux PC? Check out the list of links below and choose the desktop environment you use on Linux to learn how to change GTK themes!

The post How to install the Neo-to GTK theme on Linux appeared first on AddictiveTips.

How to install the LightningBug GTK theme on Linux

LightningBug is a beautiful, Yellowish GTK theme for Linux. It comes in two variants: dark and light. The design is reminiscent of Mac OS but with a unique yellow tinge. Here’s how to install it on Linux!

LightningBug GTK theme on Linux

Downloading LightningBug

The LightningBug GTK theme is available to all Linux users via the Gnome-look.org theme website. To get your hands on this theme, start by heading over to the LightningBug Gnome-look.org page.

Once on the LightningBug page, find the “Files” button. The “Files” area has a wide variety of LightningBug theme package files to download. The choices include LightningBug Dark, LightningBug Light, LightningBug Light Solid, and LightningBug Dark Solid.

Inside the “Files” area, look to the “DL” column. Once in this column, click on the blue “DL” button next to the theme you wish to download to grab your LightningBug theme package.

Extracting LightningBug

The LightningBug theme is distributed on the internet through Tar XZ archives. These archives are handy and allow Linux creators to distribute theme files efficiently. However, you cannot use theme files that are packed in the Tar XZ format. They must be extracted first.

To start the extraction process on your computer, you must launch a terminal window. To launch a terminal window on the Linux desktop, press the Ctrl + Alt + T keyboard combination. Or, search for “Terminal” in the app menu and launch it that way.

When the terminal window is open and ready to use, make use of the CD command to enter the “Downloads” directory where the LightningBug theme package was downloaded. 

cd ~/Downloads

Inside the “Downloads” directory, the extraction can begin. Using the tar command to decompress the LightningBug theme pack you downloaded from Gnome-look.org.

To extract the LightningBug Dark GTK theme package, make use of the command below.

tar xvf Lightningbug-Dark.tar.xz

To extract the LightningBug Light GTK theme package on your computer, execute the following terminal command.

tar xvf Lightningbug-Light.tar.xz

To extract the LightningBug Light Solid theme package on your computer, you’ll need to run the command below.

tar xvf Lightningbug-Light-Solid.tar.xz

Want to extract the LightningBug Dark Solid GTK theme on your computer? Execute the command below.

tar xvf Lightningbug-Dark-Solid.tar.xz

Installing LightningBug

Now that the LightningBug GTK theme is fully extracted in your “Downloads” folder, the installation of the theme can begin. There are two ways of installing the LightningBug GTK theme on Linux. These two methods of installation are known as “single-user” and “system-wide.”

The single-user installation method is ideal for Linux users who do not share a PC and do not want other users to access the LightningBug GTK theme. The system-wide installation method is best for users who have multiple accounts on their Linux system and want every user to access the LightningBug theme.

In this guide, we’ll cover both methods. To start the installation process, open up a terminal window on the Linux desktop. You can open up a terminal window on the desktop by pressing Ctrl + Alt + T or searching for “Terminal” in the app menu.

Single-user

The first step in installing LightningBug in single-user mode is to create a new folder with the name “.themes” in your home directory. This folder will allow Linux desktop environments to load themes just for your user account.

To create the new folder, make use of the mkdir command below.

mkdir -p ~/.themes/

After creating the new theme folder, use the CD command to move the terminal window into the “Downloads” directory where the LightningBug GTK theme was previously extracted.

cd ~/Downloads/

Once inside of the “Downloads” directory, use the mv command to install the LightningBug GTK theme to the “.themes” folder. 

mv Lightningbug*/ ~/.themes/

When the command completes, the installation is finished. Confirm the installation was successful by executing the ls command below.

ls ~/.themes

System-wide

To install the LightningBug GTK theme in system-wide mode, start by accessing the “Downloads” directory in your home folder, where the theme package was previously extracted.

cd ~/Downloads

Once in the “Downloads” folder, you must log in to the root user account, as installing in system-wide mode requires modifying some system folders. 

sudo -s 

Now that the terminal has root access install the LightningBug GTK theme into the /usr/share/themes/ folder by making use of the mv command below.

mv Lightningbug*/ /usr/share/themes/

After the command completes, the LightningBug GTK theme is installed. From here, use the ls command to confirm it was successful.

ls /usr/share/themes/ 

Activating LightningBug

The LightningBug GTK theme is now installed onto your Linux PC, but it isn’t the default GTK theme. The reason for this is that simply installing a GTK theme doesn’t make it the default look on your Linux desktop. These things must be changed manually. 

If you’re unsure about how to change your default GTK theme on Linux to LightningBug, we can help! Follow along with one of the guides linked below to learn about changing the default GTK theme on Linux!

The post How to install the LightningBug GTK theme on Linux appeared first on AddictiveTips.

How to install the Equilibrium GTK theme on Linux

The Equilibrium GTK theme is based on LinMOS. It presents a mid-2000’s Mac OS skeuomorphism style. If you’d like to try out this theme on your Linux PC, it’s easier than you think! Here’s how to get it going!

Equilibrium GTK theme on Linux

Downloading Equilibrium

The Equilibrium GTK theme is available to all Linux users via the Gnome-look.org theme website. On the Gnome-look.org page, there are four download options, each a different variation of the theme.

To start the download on your Linux PC, head over to the Equilibrium Gnome-look.org page. Once on the page, find the “Files” tab, and click on it with the mouse. 

Look through the “Files” tab for the theme pack you wish to download. Once you’ve found the theme file you want to download, go to the “DL” tab and click on the blue download button next to the theme pack you wish to download.

Extracting Equilibrium

The Equilibrium theme pack is distributed to Linux users in the form of Tar XZ archives. These archives cannot be used as themes, as GTK themes must be fully extracted before using them on Linux.

To extract the Equilibrium Tar XZ archive on your computer, you must open up a terminal window. To open up a terminal window, press Ctrl + Alt + T on the keyboard. Or, search for “Terminal” in the app menu and launch it that way.

Once the terminal window is open, you must move into the “Downloads” directory. To access the “Downloads” directory, use the CD command to move into the folder where the Equilibrium theme pack is.

cd ~/Downloads

Now that you’re inside the “Downloads” directory, use the tar command to extract the Equilibrium theme pack on your computer. To start the extraction, use the commands below.

Did you download the Equilibrium Blue theme pack? Extract it on your computer with the following command.

Equilibrium-Blue-1.0.tar.xz

Need to extract the Equilibrium Blue Dark theme? You can do that with the command below.

Equilibrium-Blue-Dark-1.0.tar.xz

To extract the Equilibrium Blue Solid theme pack, make use of the following command.

Equilibrium-Blue-Solid-1.0.tar.xz

To get your hands on the Equilibrium Blue Dark Solid GTK theme pack, you’ll need to enter the following command in a terminal window.

Equilibrium-Blue-Dark-Solid-1.0.tar.xz

Installing Equilibrium

Now that Equilibrium has been extracted, the next step in the setup process is to install the theme files to the system. There are two ways to install the Equilibrium theme on Linux. 

The first way of installing the Equilibrium GTK theme on Linux is through single-user mode. This mode allows only the user that installs the theme onto the operating system to have access to it on their desktop.

The second way of installing the Equilibrium GTK theme is known as system-wide mode. This type of installation is much more involved than the single-user method as it requires the modification of system folders, but it allows all users on the system to enjoy the theme.

Single-user

To start the installation of Equilibrium in single-user mode, you’ll need to create a new folder in your home directory with the name “.themes.” This folder will enable your Linux desktop to access theme files installed as a single-user. Using the mkdir command below, create the new folder.

mkdir -p ~/.themes

After creating the new folder, you must move the terminal session into the “Downloads” directory where the Equilibrium theme package was extracted previously. To access this folder, make use of the CD command.

cd ~/Downloads

Once inside the “Downloads” directory, the installation can begin. Using the mv command, move the Equilibrium theme package files from the “Downloads” directory to the newly created “.themes” folder in your home directory.

mv Equilibrium*/ ~/.themes/

When the mv command is complete, the installation of Equilibrium on Linux in single-user mode is complete. To verify that the installation was successful, execute the ls command below.

ls ~/.themes/

System-wide

To start the installation of Equilibrium in system-wide mode, you must first access the “Downloads” directory in which the Equilibrium theme package was extracted previously. Using the CD command, move into “Downloads.”

cd ~/Downloads

Once inside the “Downloads” directory, you must elevate the terminal session to the root user, as installing Equilibrium requires modifying system-level files. 

sudo -s

Now that the terminal has root access use the mv command to install the Equilibrium GTK theme in system-wide mode on your Linux PC.

mv Equilibrium*/ /usr/share/themes/

When the installation is complete, Equilibrium is installed. To confirm it was successfully installed, run the command below.

ls /usr/share/themes/

Activating Equilibrium

The Equilibrium theme is now installed on your computer, but that’s not the end of the guide. You can’t start using the Equilibrium theme without first making it your default GTK theme. 

To make Equilibrium your default GTK theme on Linux, take a look at the list of links below. Each of the links points to an in-depth guide on how to change the default GTK theme on your Linux desktop.

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