How To Install The Papirus Icon Theme On Linux

There are a lot of material design GTK themes out there, but what about a material inspired icon theme? Introducing the Papirus icon theme! It’s an icon theme that takes heavy inspiration from Google’s material design guidelines and makes Linux desktop environments look nice and modern.

For best results, consider pairing the Papirus icon theme with the Adapta GTK theme.

Ubuntu

Ubuntu users can easily install the Papirus icon theme on their system thanks to there being a PPA software repository available. This PPA has support for all modern versions of Ubuntu. Even if you’re not using 18.04, as long as your version is still receiving updates, chances are it will work.

To install this PPA, open up a terminal and enter the following command:

sudo add-apt-repository ppa:papirus/papirus

The add-apt-repository command will instantly take the Papirus software source and add it to Ubuntu. However, even though the software source is now on Ubuntu, that doesn’t mean Papirus can install. Before continuing, we’ll need to refresh Ubuntu’s software sources, so that Papirus can be seen by the package manager.

sudo apt update

After running the apt update command, system upgrades will appear most likely. It’s imperative to install these software upgrades, as they could affect how icons are rendered on your Linux PC. It’s also just a good idea to keep your system up to date. Install upgrades with the apt upgrade command.

sudo apt upgrade -y

With all upgrades installed on Ubuntu, it’s safe to get the latest version of the Papirus icon theme. Install it with the command below:

sudo apt install papirus-icon-theme

Debian

Debian, like Ubuntu, enjoys some decent support for the Papirus icon theme. To get it going, you’re going to need to add a third party software source. However, it should be noted that this software source isn’t an official Debian one. Instead, it’s for Ubuntu Xenial (aka 16.04). Going this route usually works on Debian Stable, however, on other versions of Debian, you may run into issues. If this method doesn’t work for you, follow the generic instructions for Papirus instead.

First, add the software source to Debian’s sources folder. In this instance, instead of adding it to the main /etc/apt/sources.list file, we’ll create a separate one. Using the echo command, write the new repo to Debian:

sudo sh -c "echo 'deb http://ppa.launchpad.net/papirus/papirus/ubuntu xenial main' > /etc/apt/sources.list.d/papirus-ppa.list"

Next, download and activate the Papirus software source’s GPG key. Don’t skip this step! Setting up the Papirus software source on Debian without a key will cause errors!

sudo apt-key adv --recv-keys --keyserver keyserver.ubuntu.com E58A9D36647CAE7F

The GPG and software source are in place. Now it’s time to refresh Debian’s software sources, so the Apt package manager sees Papirus.

sudo apt-get update

Updating Debian may yield some software updates. Install them before continuing, by using the apt-get upgrade command.

sudo apt-get upgrade -y

Finally, install the Papirus icon theme to your Debian Linux PC with the following command:

sudo apt-get install papirus-icon-theme

Arc Linux

Unlike a lot of other Linux distributions, Arch Linux actually has the Papirus icon theme in the main software sources. To install it, open up a terminal and use the Pacman package manager to sync the latest package to your system.

sudo pacman -S papirus-icon-theme

Fedora

Fedora users can install Papirus via a third-party Copr repository. To enable this Copr repo, open up a terminal and use the DNF package tool.

Note: if the Copr repo doesn’t work for you on Fedora, consider using the generic instructions instead.

sudo dnf copr enable dirkdavidis/papirus-icon-theme

After enabling the Papirus Copr repo, it’s safe to install it to the system with DNF:

sudo dnf install papirus-icon-theme

OpenSUSE

The Papirus icon theme is available for all OpenSUSE users, both Leap and Tumbleweed, thanks to it being uploaded to the OBS. To get it, follow this link and click the “install” button next to your version of SUSE. Selecting the “Direct Install” button will instantly open up YaST and allow you to get the Papirus icon theme on your SUSE PC.

Generic Instructions

Papirus has a Bash script installation tool for those who aren’t lucky enough to be on any of the Linux distributions mentioned above. To use the installation script, open up a terminal and grab it with the wget download tool.

To install this icon theme system-wide, try:

sudo wget -qO- https://raw.githubusercontent.com/PapirusDevelopmentTeam/papirus-icon-theme/master/install.sh | sh

Alternatively, install the Papirus icon theme for a single user with the following command.

wget -qO- https://raw.githubusercontent.com/PapirusDevelopmentTeam/papirus-icon-theme/master/install.sh | DESTDIR="$HOME/.icons" sh

Enabling The Theme

Not sure how to enable the Papirus icon theme on your Linux distribution? Don’t worry! Check out our list below and learn how to apply the Papirus icon theme on all modern Linux distributions.

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How To Access Mega Files On Linux

Looking to get access to your Mega cloud drive on Linux? If so, we’ve got you covered. In this guide, we’ll go over how to access Mega on Linux!

Mega Sync Desktop Client

The Mega Sync desktop client is rare in that it has excellent support for Linux. On the download page, there are download links for everything from Ubuntu, to Linux Mint, ElementaryOS, to Debian, Fedora, SUSE, and even Arch Linux. To get started, select your operating system and follow the instructions.

Ubuntu

Installing the Mega Sync client on Ubuntu is quite easy, and it starts by heading to the official download page. On the download page, the Mega website can detect your operating system. If it works correctly, you’ll be asked to select your Linux distribution. Click the drop-down menu and locate Ubuntu.

Officially, Mega has support for every version of Ubuntu Linux, starting at version 12.04, and ending at version 18.04. After selecting the version of Ubuntu you use, select the download button to start the downloading process. Once the download is complete, open up the file manager, click on “Downloads” and find the Mega Debian package.

Double-click on the Mega package to open it up in Ubuntu Software Center.

Once the Ubuntu Software Center is open, click “install”, and enter your password to finish up. Alternatively, open up a terminal and do the following to install Mega on Ubuntu:

cd ~/Downloads

sudo dpkg -i megasync-*.deb
sudo apt install -f

Debian

Debian users will have an easy route to installing the official Mega Sync client, as multiple versions of the operating system are listed in the download options. To get the latest version of Mega for Debian, go to the official download page, click the drop-down menu and select one of the “Debian” options. Mega has support for versions 7, 8 and 9.

After downloading Mega for Debian, open up the file manager and click on “Downloads”. From here, locate the Mega Sync Debian package and double-click on it to open the Gdebi package installer. Click “install” in Gdebi to finish the process.

Don’t want to use Gdebi? Install Mega in Debian via the terminal instead by following the commands below.

cd ~/Downloads

sudo dpkg -i megasync-*.deb

sudo apt-get install -f

Arch Linux

Arch has official support for Mega, though instead of being pointed to an AUR page and being told to “build the package”, Arch users instead can download an installable Pacman package. Keep in mind that due to how Arch Linux is designed, each time you wish to upgrade the Mega Sync client, you will need to download a new version of the package from the website.

To get the Arch Mega Sync package, go to the download page, find the drop-down menu and select “Arch Linux” and click the download button.

Let the Pacman package finish downloading. When it’s done, open up a terminal and use the CD command to move the terminal into the ~/Downloads directory.

cd ~/Downloads

Inside the Downloads folder, use the Pacman package tool to install the offline Mega Sync package.

sudo pacman -U megasync-x86_64.pkg.tar.xz

Due to the nature of Arch Linux, all required Mega dependencies should automatically install. To be safe, after installing the package, sync the latest updates. This should ensure that the app runs at it’s best.

sudo pacman -Syyuu

When the update completes, Mega Sync should be ready to use on Arch Linux!

Fedora

Mega has a downloadable RPM for many versions of Fedora Linux, both new and old (version 19 to 28). To get it running on Fedora, go to the download page and select your version of Fedora in the drop-down menu.

Let the RPM download. When the download finishes, open up a terminal and do the following to get it running!

cd ~/Downloads

sudo dnf install -y megasync-Fedora_28.x86_64.rpm

OpenSUSE

To get Mega Sync on OpenSUSE, first head over to the download page and select “OpenSUSE” in the drop-down menu. Once the RPM file finishes downloading to your Linux PC, open up a terminal and use it to CD into the ~/Downloads folder.

cd ~/Downloads

In the Downloads folder, use Zypper to install the Mega Sync package to the system.

sudo zypper install megasync-openSUSE_*.rpm

Set Up Mega

After you’ve installed Mega on Linux, it’s time to set it up. To use Mega on Linux, open up the application menu, search for “MEGA” and launch it. Upon opening the app, you’ll see a pop-up window. In the window, log your user information into it to sign in. When you sign in, Mega should instantly start syncing locally.

Feel free to close the window and let Mega Sync run in the background.

Note: All files that the app downloads are available in /home/username/MEGA/.

To access the files, open up your file manager and click the “MEGA” logo. Alternatively, open up a terminal and access it via the command line:

cd ~/MEGA

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How To Install New Linux Kernel Versions On OpenSUSE Leap

Many Linux fans choose to use OpenSUSE Leap due to stability. Unlike a lot of other distros out there, it chooses to deliver a safe, stable environment for professionals to work in. For most people, Leap is perfect. However, if you’ve got new hardware, Leap may cause some issues for you. A way to solve the issues that appear when using Linux distributions, like OpenSUSE Leap, is to install new Linux Kernel versions on OpenSUSE Leap.

OpenSUSE Leap is slow to upgrade the kernel so it’s best to just do it yourself. That’s why in this guide, we’ll go over how to get the absolute latest version of the Linux kernel on OpenSUSE. Better yet, we’ll show you how to use the current version and the latest version simultaneously.

Identify Kernel Version

The first step in upgrading Suse to a new version of the Linux kernel is to see what version of the Linux kernel you already have. It’s important to know your version so you know how far behind you are in releases. This information is easy to find in the terminal, with the uname command:

uname -r

Running uname with the -r switch will show the release version of the kernel. This is all of the information you need to determine what version of Suse’s kernel is on your PC. If you need more information, uname is still useful. Consider trying out the -a switch instead, as it gives more information about the kernel, release and etc.

uname -a

Modify Kernel Setup

By default, LEAP only installs the stable kernel. It’s much older than the ones being released in Tumbleweed. It does get security patches and all that. However, if you’re interested in mixing the stability of Tumbleweed with a new kernel, these settings need to be modified. To modify how Leap handles the kernel, open up a terminal and use the Nano text editor to modify the Zypper configuration file.

sudo nano /etc/zypp/zypp.conf

Inside of the zypp.conf file, there many things to edit. Scroll down and look for the multiversion.kernels section. Multiversion is important and needs to be enabled. Turning on this setting will allow you to keep the traditional kernel that OpenSUSE Leap ships with while getting a new one also. It’s the best of both worlds and is the best way to satisfy all of your needs on the operating system.

Next to multiversion.kernels, change “latest,latest-1,running” to “latest,latest-1,running,oldest”. After changing the code, save the configuration file by pressing the Ctrl + O keyboard combination. Once zypp.conf is saved with the new modifications, it’s safe to close the Nano text editor that is open in the terminal. Do this by pressing the Ctrl + X keyboard combination.

Adding The Kernel Repo

It is now safe to install a newer Linux kernel version on OpenSUSE Leap however, it’s not as easy as just doing a quick “zypper install” command to get the new Linux kernel. Leap doesn’t carry any new versions of the Linux kernel inside of the software repositories that come with the operating system, just the mainline one you’re already using.

Instead, you’ll need to add another software repository. Specifically, you’ll need to use Zypper to add the kernel repo. This repo has dozens of different kernels, including the absolute latest Linux kernel.

Inside a terminal window, gain a root shell with the su command.

su -

Now that the shell has root access, use the Zypper package management tool to add the kernel repository:

zypper ar -f http://download.opensuse.org/repositories/Kernel:/HEAD/standard/ kernel-repo

Adding the new kernel repo to Leap should instantly trigger new updates. However, you shouldn’t attempt to install any upgrades in the traditional way. Instead, follow the instructions below to do a “dist-upgrade”.

Install New Kernel

Installing a newer version of the Linux kernel on OpenSUSE Leap requires an upgrade. However, it’s not a normal upgrade where the entire operating system gets new packages. Instead, we’ll tell Suse to do a distribution upgrade from the kernel repository only. Doing it this way means only the Linux kernel aspect of the OS will be changed.

Note: even though Suse will upgrade to a new kernel, the old version will be kept, thanks to enabling that feature earlier in the guide.

To do the kernel upgrade on Suse, open up a terminal and gain a root shell with the su command.

su -

After gaining root, execute the following command and install the newest version of the Linux kernel on OpenSUSE Leap.

zypper dist-upgrade -r kernel-repo

Let the terminal do its thing and install the new version of Linux on your PC. Once installed, you’ll need to restart your Linux PC. Upon logging back in, you’ll be using the latest version of Linux on OpenSUSE Leap!

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How To Share The Linux Terminal Online With Teleconsole

Helping other Linux users is rewarding, but it can sometimes be a pain, as remote access software has always been hit or miss on this platform. Thankfully, you can help your friends with their Linux problems directly from the terminal. All you have to do is share the Linux terminal online, and you’ll be able to provide remote support to whoever needs it.

Teleconsole is a slick app that can route a terminal connection over the internet for easy access. No port forwarding is needed, and everything is done automatically. Best of all, it’ll even generate a sharable URL, so you don’t even have to be on Linux to use it!

Install Teleconsole

The Teleconsole app is command-line based, so installing it isn’t much of a challenge. To get it working, you need to be running a modern Linux distribution with the latest version of Curl. Alternatively, you’ll need to use a Linux distribution that has support for Snap packages.

Snap Package

The Teleconsole app is readily available for installation via the Snap store. To get it, you must first enable Snap package support on your Linux distribution. Most Linux operating systems these days have support for Snaps. If you’re not sure if you can use these types of packages on your Linux desktop, head over to Snapcraft and read the homepage, as it has a list of all supported operating systems.

When you’re sure your operating system can use Snaps, head over to our guide here to learn how to set it up! Then, follow the instructions below to install Teleconsole to your Linux PC via Snap.

sudo snap install teleconsole --classic

Installing Teleconsole via the Snap store is usually effortless, though, you may run into issues because it was submitted to the Snap store in “classic” mode. If the app refuses to install in this method, consider skipping to the Script installation instructions instead.

Need to uninstall Teleconsole from your Snap library? Try the following command.

sudo snap remove teleconsole

Script

For those that can’t use Snap packages, or don’t want to, fear not. Teleconsole has an installation script that works on virtually every Linux distribution out there. To install it, you first need to make sure that you have the latest version of Curl on your Linux PC. To install Curl, open up a terminal and follow the instructions based on your operating system.

Ubuntu

sudo apt install curl

Debian

sudo apt-get install curl

Arch Linux

sudo pacman -S curl

Fedora

sudo dnf install curl

OpenSUSE

sudo zypper install curl

Generic Linux

Curl is the most popular command-line download tool on Linux. As a result, it’s fairly easy to install, even on lesser-known Linux distributions. To install it, open up a terminal, search for “curl” in the package manager and install it. Alternatively, head over to the Curl official website and learn other ways to get it on your Linux PC.

Once Curl is installed, Teleconsole is ready to install.

Note: installing the Teleconsole app this way means downloading a script and automatically executing it. If this makes you feel uneasy, or unsafe, click this link to examine the code yourself.

curl https://www.teleconsole.com/get.sh | sh

Share The Linux Terminal Online

The primary use of Teleconsole is to share the Linux terminal online. To do this, you’ll need to launch Teleconsole in a terminal session. Keep in mind that Teleconsole is installed to your Linux PC at a user level, so running it with “sudo” isn’t necessary, or required.

Start a session with:

teleconsole

After executing the teleconsole command, the program should quickly start a shared session. It’ll then print out an ID you can share with a friend. Additionally, Teleconsole also gives out a shareable URL. Give this URL to a friend who needs terminal access but isn’t on a Linux PC at the moment.

Sharing the Teleconsole ID is the only thing the host needs to do to. Once your guest has the URL open or uses the unique connection ID, everything should be ready to go!

Connecting To A Shared Session

To connect to a shared Teleconsole terminal session via a terminal, you’ll need to make use of the join command. Generally speaking, connecting to a Teleconsole session this way is only useful if you’re not happy with the URL system that Teleconsole uses.

Get the session ID from the person hosting a remote Teleconsole session and copy it to your clipboard. Then, open up a terminal and use Teleconsole to connect.

teleconsole join insert-id-number-here

Using the join command should instantly connect to the remote connection. If the connection fails, look into your firewall settings for outbound connections, allow Teleconsole through and try again. For more information on how the Teleconsole app interacts with outbound/inbound connections, check:

teleconsole --help

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How To Enable Root SSH Login On Linux

SSH is great, as it gives Linux users easy console access to any computer over a network. One way to improve your SSH experience on Linux is to enable Root SSH login. With this setting, it’s easy to quickly log directly into the Root account to accomplish system-level tasks.

Root isn’t enabled in SSH by default, for security reasons. However, if you manage a lot of systems and need constant root access for executing scripts, automation and etc, turning on this feature is a must.

To be clear, turning on Root login over SSH is dangerous. Please don’t do this if you are new to SSH!

Root Password

The first step to enabling Root login over SSH is to enable the Root account. For many Linux distributions (Ubuntu and others like it), Root isn’t active, for security. Instead, users do everything via sudo privileges. For the most part, not using the Root account is fine, and sudo can do the job. However, with SSH, users need to know the Root password.

First, log into your remote server/PC you wish to enable Root over SSH on remotely:

ssh user@remote-ip-addres

If you set up your Linux distribution and didn’t configure a Root user, you’ll need to follow the steps below to setup Root. Please understand that this process won’t work without a user that has the ability to use sudo. To start off, open up a terminal. In the terminal, run:

sudo -s

Using sudo with -s will give the user a Root shell, much like logging in with su does. From here, it’s possible to invoke the “new password” command for the Root user.

passwd

Running passwd will prompt the user to specify a “new UNIX password”. Write in the new password for the Root account on your PC. For security purposes, please do not use the same password for Root as your normal user account. Be sure to generate a secure but memorable password for the account.

After setting the password, log out of the Root shell with exit.

exit

Lastly, confirm the new Root password works by logging into it via su.

su -

Enable Root Login

Now that we know it’s possible to log in as a Root user, it’s time to enable the Root login setting in the SSHD config file. Once again, start off by opening up a terminal and connecting over SSH as a normal user.

Note: Don’t want to modify your SSH server remotely? Modify it locally instead of in the terminal.

ssh user@remote-ip-address

We’re connected (remotely) over SSH to the SSH server. Next, elevate the normal connection to Root access by logging in via su.

su –

Next, using the Nano text editor, open up the SSH server configuration file.

nano /etc/ssh/sshd_config

Look through the configuration file, find “PermitRootLogin”. It may have “no” in front of it. If this is the case, change the “no” to “yes”.

In other instances of SSH, “PermitRootLogin” may say “prohibit-password”. Delete “prohibit-password”, and change it to “yes”.

After changing the Root settings for the SSH server, you’ll need to save the configuration changes. Configuration changes save in Nano by pressing the Ctrl + O keyboard combination. Close the Nano editor with Ctrl + X when the configuration saves correctly.

Applying Root Setting

Now that Root login is enabled in the settings, you’ll need to restart the SSH daemon to apply the changes. On most Linux PC’s this can easily be accomplished with systemd. In a terminal, gain root access with su or sudo:

su -

or

sudo -s

After gaining root, use systemd to restart the SSH daemon.

systemctl restart sshd

Don’t use systemd? Try this command instead:

service ssh restart

If neither command works to restart the SSH daemon, a foolproof way is to just restart the server running SSH:

reboot

After rebooting, the changes should be applied. To log in as root, open up a terminal and try the following:

root@ssh-server-ip

Disable Root Login

Don’t want Root login via SSH anymore? Luckily, the feature is as easy to turn off as it is to turn on. The first way is to just lock the Root account. Doing it this way allows the setting to be turned on and off on the fly via unlocking the Root account. To lock Root, gain a superuser shell via sudo and run:

passwd --lock root

This command scrambles the root account and effectively disables it. To get it back for use with Root over SSH, follow the instructions at the top of the article.

Alternatively, to fully disable Root login, open up a terminal (with Root):

su -

or

sudo -s

In the SSH config file, find “PermitRootLogin” and change it from “yes” to “no”.

nano /etc/ssh/sshd_config

Press Ctrl + O to save, exit with Ctrl + X and then reboot. Upon reset, Root login will not work.

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